the first studies on the detection on the paternity through DNA analysis, which at the end of the 90 were not going more than modernity, they solved the enigma.
How to run DNA tests that promise to reveal who were your ancestors throughout history, thousands of women have been repudiated by not conceive sons. For more than one century we know that biological sex is determined by a pair of chromosomes: XX female, XY male.
As women are XX, all their eggs are X. Sperm, by contrast, can be X or and. When a sperm fruitful X an egg shaped a 20th embryo, from which will emerge a woman. Sperm and form XY embryos, which men originate.
So as the DNA of the chromosome and passes unchanged from generation to generation, from father to son, which serves to track parental. Identification of markers using techniques that seemed science fiction in 1990, and today are eaten bread, allow tracing the family trail far behind in time.
The mystery was solved through the analysis of ADNJefferson, author of the introduction and the preamble of the Declaration of independence, had live distressed by huge contradiction between your ideas and their real-life. Between his ambition as illustrated political advocate of the abolition of slavery and his fondness for earthly pleasures.
Impeachment of Sally Hemings was inherited by his wife, Sarah Wayles Jefferson. In 1787, with the already-widowed politician, Sally moved to Monticello, Jefferson country residence in Virginia.
The obligations of the young included maintaining ordered room and the wardrobe of the founding father. Since it began to serve it until 1808, Sally gave birth to several children: Thomas, Beverly, Harriet, Madison, Eston, and at least one more daughter, deceased girl’s.
In September 1802, a year after Jefferson took his first presidency, journalist James Callender published in a newspaper of Richmond a note which stated that the President maintained a common-law relationship with one of his slaves, who had made mother of several children.
Sally Hemings settled in Monticello, the country residence of Jefferson in 1805 VirginiaEn, in full Presidency, began the impeachment, itimpeachment, that could end with his dismissal as President. As Clinton was 200 years later, the sex scandal did not affect his popularity.
He won presidential elections for the second consecutive time. The impeachment achieved their purposes or the accusation of Callender never witnessed, but remained dormant for nearly two centuries.
How the Inquisition left his mark on Latin Americans DNA evidence the rumors about Jefferson fathering rested on three evidence: bound by public responsibilities, the President spent long time outside Monticello, but He was there during the weeks in which, presumably, Sally pregnant.
The children of Sally, all them mulattos, seemed extraordinarily Jefferson.
The testimony of the fourth son, Madison, who, already old, said that her mother had acknowledged that Jefferson was the father of all her children.
Presidential chromosomes the matter was not resolved until it could be genetic chromosomes and five descendants by paternal line of the first son of Sally, Thomas, and analysis of the latter, Eston.
Published in Nature 20 years ago, certainly showed that the President had been the father of at least one of the children of his slave, and very likely also the remaining.
Thomas Jefferson is one of the founding fathers of the USA In this illustration appears next to John Adams, Robert Morris, Alexander HamiltonJefferson left no children recognised males, so the chromosome and part of his family was obtained from five descendants of his paternal uncle Field.
As some versions of the defenders of their innocence argued that the similarity between Jefferson and the sons of Sally was that they were sons of his nephews Samuel and Peter Carr, the chromosomes of three descendants of John Carr were included in the analysis , the grandfather of two Jefferson nephews.
The study showed that: a) the combination of flags found in the descendants of Uncle Field was highly original, because it did not appear in a random sample of 2,000 men used as a witness.
(b) four of the descendants of Thomas, the first son of Sally, possessed chromosomes and characteristic of the European population and not the African, which suggested the possibility of a white parent.
(c) the chromosome of descendant of Eston, the son of Sally, was equal to the descendants of the uncle Field and completely different than the one of the descendants of John Carr.
The explanation was clear: Eston was son of Jefferson, and was also very likely that it was Thomas.
Jefferson left no sons reconocidosHay other possible explanations, but no historical data supports them. Jefferson had a brother, Randolph, and five nieces and nephews. All had the same chromosome, and thus that any of them might be the father… but they were not at Monticello when Sally children were conceived.
After Jefferson died in 1826, his daughter Martha left released Sally. Although it has not been no image of it, a couple of considered reliable testimonies describe it as a very pretty mulatto. Of which there is no doubt is that it was very discreet: died in 1835 without having said a word on the matter.
* Manuel Peinado Lorca is a Professor of the University University of Alcala, Madrid, Spainna, in the Department of life sciences.