Mexico.-When there are fires, such as those that have been recorded in the Valley of Mexico, in the air predominate particles of 2.5 micron, which are more harmful and/or risky for health. These particles damage the cells causing an inflammatory process. The particles 2.5 micron provoke in a healthy person symptoms like dryness and discomfort in throat, besides burning in the eyes, but the immune system responds adequately to these environmental factors. But if the patient suffers from a chronic respiratory or cardiovascular condition, the reactions are more severe and can cause a crisis.
Pollution in CDMX is increasing
The particles have in a wide range of sizes and are classified according to their aerodynamic diameter in PM10 (particles with a aerodynamic diameter of less than 10 microns) or PM 2.5 (aerodynamic diameter lower than 2.5 microns). The latter are more dangerous because, when inhaled, they can reach the peripheral areas of the bronchioles and alter the pulmonary exchange of gases, since they are so small that they can only be detected with an electron microscope. Fine particle sources include all kinds of combustions, including motor vehicles, power plants, residential wood burning, forest fires, agricultural burnings, and some industrial processes. Scientific studies have linked fine particle contamination with a number of significant health problems, including the following: Premature death in people with heart or lung disease.
Non-fatal heart attacks.
Worsening of asthma.
Decreased pulmonary function.
Increased respiratory symptoms, such as airway irritation, coughing, wheezing, and decreased lung function, even in healthy children and adults.
Chronic exposure to particles increases the risk of developing cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, as well as lung cancer. Mortality in cities with high levels of pollution exceeds that recorded in cleaner cities of 15-20%.
Chronic exposure to particles increases the risk of developing cardiovascular and respiratory diseases/Photo: Reform
Older adults are at higher risk, possibly because they may have an undiagnosed heart or lung disease or diabetes. Even if you are healthy, you may experience temporary symptoms such as eye irritation, nose and throat, cough, phlegm, chest tightness, and shortness of breath. Fine particles can remain suspended in the air and travel long distances and then settle on the ground or water. The effects of this settlement are: acidification of lakes and streams, changing the balance of nutrients in coastal waters and watersheds of large rivers, which deplete soil nutrients, and damaging forests and sensitive agricultural crops, which Affects the
Diversity of ecosystems.
Particle contamination, unlike ozone, can occur all year round.
Original source in Spanish